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Амичба Валентина Александровна
Доктор филологических наук. Крупный специалист по абхазо-адыгским языкам. Преподаватель, доцент Абхазского государственного университета. Автор 130 опубликованных работ: книги, статьи, монографии, школьные и университетские учебники, методические разработки, программы и т.д. Более 20 лет на Абхазском телевидении вела передачу «Люблю родной язык абхазский».
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Валентина  Амҷ-ԥҳа

Аԥсуаа  рантропонимиа  азҵаатәқәа
(Аҭҵаарақәа,  ахатәы  хьыӡқәа  ржәар)


Иҭнажьит Аԥсуа бызшәа аҿиара аҳәынҭқарратә фонд

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Валентина Амичба

Вопросы абхазской антропонимии
(Исследование и словарь личных имен)
На абхазском языке

Аԥхьаҩ идгалоу адоцент, афилологиатә ҭҵаарадыррақәа ркандидат В.А. Амҷ-ԥҳа  лусумҭа  «Аԥсуаа  рантропонимиа  азҵаатәқәа»  азкуп  аԥсуа антропонимтә  система  аилазаара азеиԥш  сахьа  аарԥшра,  ажәытәтәи антропонимқәа реизгареи рҵареи рызҵаатәқәа.
Аусумҭа иеиднакыло алингвистикатәи аетнографиатәи антропонимтә материал  аҭҵаара дескрептивтәлеи  адиахрониатәи  аспеқтқәа  рыла иазнеиуп. Иазааҭгылоуп аԥсуа хьӡыҵәҟьақәа ралкаареи, рыхьӡрҿиареи, рграмматика-семантикатә струқтура аметод хыкқәеи, аԥсуаа ртрадициақәа ирыдҳәалоу ажәытәтәи антропонимқәа рҷыдарақәеи.
Амонографиа иахәҭакны иацуп акыр инеиҵыху аԥсуаа рхатәы хьыӡқәа реиқәыԥхьаӡа (рсиа).
Аусумҭа рызкуп алингвистцәа, аетнографцәа, астудентцәа, аԥсуаа рхатәы хьыӡқәа гәцаразкуа, ирызҿлымҳау аԥхьаҩцәа зегьы.

© Амҷ-ԥҳа В. А., 2007

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The source of  research represented in this work is the material collected in different time in populated centers of Republic of Abkhazia. In scientific works on history, linguistics and ethnography of Abkhaz the question of the Abkhaz anthroponomy was not fully covered by such scientists as N. Marr, A. Dirr, D. Gulia, Z. Anchabadze, H. S. Bgazba, Sh. Inal-ipa, A. Kuprava, G. Amichba.
The earliest information on Abkhaz anthroponomy may be founded in the works of the ancient authors, such as Plyny the Younger,   Phlavia Arrian, Procopy of Cessaria.
In this work we would like to pay attention on types of formation of semantic groups of the Abkhaz personal names, without analyzing their etymology. Personal Abkhaz names are a valuable source on culture of the language and ethnography.
The structure of the personal Abkhaz names is various. The Abkhaz anthroponomy is heterogeneous. As in all other languages, in the Abkhaz language, at the same time as with the original Abkhaz names, there are also borrowed ones (adig, arabic, Persian, greek, turk, Russian, gergian and international).
Depending on the origin and semantic correlation different groups of the Abkhaz personal names can be observed. The Abkhaz personal names go to the names of animals and vegetation. These names may be considered as the most ancient. Many of the male names were formed by the names of metals and weapons: Ajir / Jir – “steel”, Kualdzi, Kualdzits – “a chain mail”, Kama – “a dagger”, Msakei – “a kind of dagger”,Kaitan, Kaitanba (as a surname) – “ a lace”, Dach, Dachka – “a chain”.
There are male names and nicknames which stress such valuable human qualities as strength, courage, endurance, heroism: Khatsa – “a hero”, Gumshvia (gu – “a heat”, m is the negation affix, shvia – from the verb to be afraid of – ashviara), literally “fearless”; Matzis – “a lightning”, Kuits – “embers”, Kuasaj – “easygoing”.
A lot of male and female names go to the names of domestic and wild animals, birds, insects, reptiles. For example: men names Mishv/Mishva – “a bear”, Baga – “a woif”, Bagapsh – “a red wolf” (surname), Lazv – “an old, wicked dog”, Chincha – “nestling”, Mti – “a snake”, Hunap – “a mouse”, Bagir – “a sparrow”, Kuti – “a hen”, Kuat – “a duck”, Kubri/ Kubrits “a mosquito”, Warba – “an eagle”, Alim/Alma – “a lion”.
Female names: Tsguna – “a cat”, Wasas – “a ram”, Sis – “a lance”, Huh – “a pigeon”, Tsis – “a small bird”, Dzirkui – “a fire-fly”, Dzikut – “a duck”, Kuchish – “a chicken” , Turna – “a crane”, Htsis – “a golden bird”.
There are names (mainly female) connected with the names of vegetation: Rasats/Rasidats – “a hazel nut”, Kachich – “a kind of grape”, Khuaxv – “a fern”, Shvtits – “a flower”, Mtits – “a thorn”, Kakach/Kachuch – “a flower”, Khapara – “a pumpkin”, Makhu – “a branch”, Kama – “a dill, borrowed ones: Guil, Guilia – “a rose”, Guelbaz, Gulbiaz – “a white rose”, Gulnara, Gulnaz – “a flower of pomegranate”.
Female names also comes from the names of jewelry, artificial stones and fabric: Karua – “amber”, Birphin/Birphinka – “a silk”, Pheldish – “a golden thread”, Khits – “a piece of gold”, Khishkuaka – “a white gold”, Khimra – “a golden sun”.
There are names, the meanings of which are connected with the names of different countries. Many centuries they reflect the economic and cultural ties of Abkhaz with the various countries and neighboring towns: Mzir, Mamzir (m.), Mzirkhan (f.) – Egypt, Manjuria – Manjuria, Ponia – Japan, Dania – Denmark, African/Frican – Africa, Shiam/Shamina – Syria, Cuban – Cuban, German – Germany, Indira – India, Phardaus – Pheodosia, Rapstan – Arabia, Yalta – Yalta, Khirson – Khirson, Des/Desa – Odessa.
In the root of many anthroponyms lies ethnonyms  as in the Abkhaz language so as in many other languages: Apsua, Psua – “Abkhaz”, Adig, Edgats – “Adig”, “Adigan”, Auar – “Auar” , Arap/Rap – “Negroid”, Uris/ Uriskhan – “Russian”, Tirkua – “Turkey”, Karach – “Karach”, Tatar – “Tatar”, Charkiaz – “Charkiaz”, Nauei – “Nogan”, Phrantsiz – “French”, Yardania – “Yordan”, Laz – “Laz”, Wazbek – “Uzbekian”, Shamakch – “Armenian”, Shvaniwab – ‘Shvan”, Chachan – “Chechen”.
Many similar ethnonyms formed the Abkhaz surnames, presented today: Tirkba – Tirkb, Cherkesia – Cherkes.
Sometimes such surnames – ethnonyms existed together with the official surnames: Ashua Teb (the real surname is Sharmat), Akarach Bakuakui, Akarach Machmut, Charkiaz Akhmat, Asadz Eslam… There are the Abkhaz personal names, connected with the place of birth of the man: Kada Habash – Kada is the name of the village high in the mountains of Abkhazia – Habash from Kada, Achapara Hasan – Achapara is the name of the village in the mountains – Hasan from Achapara, Shiaku Tatawaz – Shiaku is the village in Abkhazia – Tatawaz from Shiaku.
The Abkhaz names are connected with concrete objects in principal.
There are the so called “space” names among them: Amra – “a sun”, Amza – “a moon”, Mara/Mira (abaz) – “a sun”, Mra-Mza – “a sun and a moon”, Apta – “a cloud”, Matsis – “a lightening”, Mzauch, Mzalei… It should be noted that one can observe the names of princes in the Abkhaz   names. In this connection V. A. Niconov writes that the selection of the names is in the evident dependence on social – economic situation of its bearer.
The story – tellers separately distinguish the so-called prince names.
For the surname Marshian – Alow, Adu, Babish, Tatash, Adamir, Shrimbai, Slambak, Khrips, Alibai, Haitbai, Kialishbai.
And for the surname Chachba – Sustar, Sapharbai, Hamutbai, Alimbai, Alibai, Sastingaz, Mirzakan; female names – Yadly-hanim, Esma-hanim, Saphra-hanim… However, this problem, connected with the history of Abkhazia, is a subject of special research. Here we will be restricted by several examples.
A comparatively large group for new personal names, made up of borrowed ones, then interpreted into personal names without any special modifications: Geroi, Aurora, Kamtet  - a committee, Gazet – a newspaper, Kamanda – a command, Saldat – a soldier, Saat – a clock, watch, Shakar – a sugar, Orden, Maior, Gektar, Kukla – a doll.
Separate names are closely connected with historical events and various incidents. Such is a widely known name “Khirzaman”, which means “an extremely horrible event or incident”. The name was given to the baby in Ggerda (surname Amichba), who was born during Makhadjirstvo in Abkhazia. The name Makhajir has also the same connection with the event.
One of the characteristic features of the Abkhaz names is that they are in accord with the names, given to the babies in one family, or with the names of the rest of the relatives.
The Abkhaz give their children beautiful names with the positive semantic coloring.
The initial and final part of the name may be in accord. Such accord forms the rhyme: Ajiri – Bajiri, Ajini – Kuajini, Tahani – Tarahmani.
Female names: Kamachichi Kamidani, Tinati Sinati, Kaimitkhani Kazirkhani, Khamazv Khamzvazv.
The names may be in accord with the surnames: Fshvi Shvarak, Chays Chagu, Bazdajikhua Basiat, Showa Shibga, Shinku Shkhanikva, Barskil Bar, Hatkhua Harun, Ach-pkha Chich (f.), Anua-pkha Nata (f.) The Abkhaz personal names have a quite different word-building structure. We gave examples of the personal names of nouns. Which were formed by the lexical-semantic means of word- building. We can add to many of the personal names different elements, which attach great importance to the meaning of singularity, tenderness, diminutiveness.
For example, the suffix –ts,   Kubri - “a mosquito”, Kubrits - “a small mosquito”, Khu - “a gold”, Shvti - “a flower”, Shvtits - “a little flower”.
This element can be founded in such names as Jigrits, Chigits, Matts… To form various shades of meaning modal suffix – zv is added to many of the names.
For example, Khizv (khi, akhi - “a gold”, zv - “an old”) literally “an old, the most valuable gold”, Lazv (-la, -ala - “a dog”, zv is the modal suffix) literally “an old”, strong and very wicked dog (sometimes it has the negative semantic), Shatazv (Shata ashata - “the root”, “the basis of smth.” - zv in the meaning of antiquity) – literally “the ancestor of the family”.
One can come across complex nicknames, in the basis of which lies the names of the parts of men body. These are usually ahi (a head) and agu (a heart).
Ahi: Khabigu, Khakutsv, Khits, Khsagan, Khabzvkut (the form of the head).
Agu: Gudlazv (from agu - “a heart”, within the structure of the verb “agudlara” - “attack”, -zv – the modal suffix). Literally “fearless”, Gudzba (gu, agu - “a heart”, zba, azbara – from the verb to decide, to discuss, literally “reasonable”, Gutsakia (nickname).
There are mainly male names and nicknames, derived from the word azvia - “a heve” in the system of the Abkhaz anthroponomy: Zviats, Zvazv, Zvazva, Zvakur, Zvampil: names and nicknames, formed by reduplication of syllable: Tata, Chacha, Shasha, Guadguad, Khuachacha, Khuat-Khuat, Khuarkhuar, Tsirtsir… A great number of male and female names are derived from the word akhi - “gold”: Khizr - “an old gold of the best quality”, Khishkuakua - “a white gold”, Khrips – Khiarpis (abaz) “a good as gold fellow”, Khimra, Khimur - “a golden sun”, Khikur, Khikhu, Khibla (akhi - “a gold”, bla (abla) – an eye literally “a golden-eyed girl”).
The word “akhi” - “gold” mainly in princess’s names and surnames plays the role of epithet: Akhi (a golden) Marshan, Akhi Chachkhan (a golden Chachkhan), Akhi Zoshan (a golden Zoshan), Akhi Shabat (a golden Shabat).
Given to the babies “golden names”, the Abkhaz hoped “to protect from diseases, death and evil. These are the so called “protective names”.
Besides they had to stress the beauty and other positive qualities of a child - -like gold- - is an echo of the ancient worship of gold.
Ancient male descriptive personal nicknames can be distinguished in a separate group.
This group is made up of the nominal part and verb “nikva” - to walk, walking.
F.e.: Shkhanikva (Bz. dialect) -shkha (ashkha - “a mountain”), nikva - “a walking”, a walker – literally to walk fearlessly in the mountains (Shkhanikva dikvamkva shkhanikva kvartson) – a proverb. Shamkhnikva – Shamkhi (a shamkhi - “a knee”) – nikva “a walker” in the meaning of “indefatigable, fearless walker”. Muanikva – mua/amua “a road”, nikva - “a walker” in the meaning of the “traveler”. Chapanikva – (chapa - “armed”, nikva - —”to walk, a walker” in the meaning of “armed walker” - a brave armed person, one who is always on the alert.
Ancient Abkhaz anthroponomy remained in the structure of the toponyms (microponyms and hydronyoms), have complex word-building structure.
F.e.: Tiku idzikh – consists of male name Tiku and appellative dzikh “a sprihg” with the possessive affix and “his” - Tiku and his sprihg, Taba ikuatsa consists of the female name Taba and appellative kuatsa “a wooded park”; Pakhuala ipsakhua consist of the male name Pakhala “a field” with the possessive affix and his (Pakhula) field.
Ancient names and nicknames, essential in their structure also remained in many of the Abkhaz proverbs and sayings in the ancient forms and structures.
A lot of original Abkhaz names go to the adjectives, which contain these or those characteristics: Kiagu - “short”, Diji - “stoopy”, Gedzi - “round”, Kachbei - “a nuser”, Kuats - “tall”, Chakhia - “Soar”, Kiasa - “late”, Shkuakua - “white”, Khuchi - “little”, Kuatsara - “black”, Kuats - “tidy, neat”, Kapshi - “red”, Kubcha (f) - “clever“, Khits - “thin”.
Dadia - “beautiful” (compare whith the adig Dekheps, Dadiv, Dakhanas, “beautiful” and “pure as snow” (Mambetov, 1970, p.120)/ One can come across personal names, related to the verbal forms: Khipha – (khi; akhi) “gold”, pha – from the verb “to eat” - a person, who its gold; Takhuts (from akhutsra “to think” - at is the suffix of location in the meaning of place - “thoughtful” Chirba (f) from the verb “achirbara”, to show off, to flaunt – literraly “Pandy”, Natsa – (from the verb anatsara) to driven; Taha (from the verb atachara - “to fall into”).
There are ancient descriptive names-nicknames, which do not often meet. They are formed from the verb and reflect seasons, the time of the child’s birth: Kushan (from the verb “akusvara”, to collect, to gather, suffix – n is  the index of time, period), a child, borned during harvest; Kushvtin (f) – from the verb “ashvtra” - “blossoming”; - a child borned  during blossoming; Kamlan (from the verb akamlara “do not be in the meaning of somebody’s borned during crop-failure”.
He’s necessary to dwell on some traditions and customs of Abkhaz, connected whith the names.
F.e. the so called custom of “avoidance” to avoid calling somebody’s name in the large theme. We shall briefly fix our attention on some peculiarities.
The bride in the house of her husband, writes Sh. P. Inal-ipa – got the second name. Her own maiden name, which she got on her birthday, considered here as fable name, and only her relatives called her by her maiden name (Inal-ipa, 1965, p.463).
The Abkhaz daughter-in-low, according the tradition, could not call her husband’s name, the names of his parents and relatives. She picked out  beautiful, tender names for them: Atata, Alapshza, Khaara, Lashara, Santa-Sajia.
The name Dadah is used for the thaver-in-low-Dad stresses honorable age and is used in the meaning of thavers - “the honorable farher”, ah - “the king”, f.e. - “the honorable fathers” - “king”.
And the name – Nanah (Nanahkuaza for the mother-in-low-Nah in the meaning of the mother-Ah (ahkuaz) “a queen” literraly “the honorable” mothers-queen.
In fiction this has a wide coverage in the novel B. Shinkuba “The cleaned stone”. This customs is common with Abkhaz-Adig nation.
The tradition is much said about in the works of G. Kh. Mambetov (Mambetov, 1970, p. 124-126) and J. N. Kokov (Kokov, 1973, p. 21 – 26).
One cannot see in this custom, writes G. Kh. Mambetov a kind of humiliation or enslavement of the daughter-in-low.
Obviously, here we faced with the Adig custom of avoidance, appeared in the connection with the ancient magic views of Adig. (Mambetov, 1970, p.126). He is also connected with the certain speech etiquette, upbringing and moral principles of Abkhaz and Adig.
It should be noted that these ancient Abkhaz traditions are still observed among people. The traditions are still observed among people. The tradition to know and to pass the names of the ancestors from one generation to another D. C. still also observed. When meeting each other old residence traditionally asks each other: “How many names of your relatives can you count?” The principal of enumeration has its own formula. After each name the word-combination is – iab “his father is repeated”.
F.e.: Sagiasa, ui iab Kuamat, ui iab Mdar, ui iab Jgit, ui iab Batamei, ui iab Sharadin, ui iab Tlapsikua, ui iab Mishv, ui iab Kip… We can also add the word “ihdzin”, his name was.
“Sab Kugu bhdzin – my father’s name was Kugu, ui iab Zindjik ihdzin, his father’s name was Zindjik, ui iab Hakutsv, ui iab Huarkuar ihdzin, ui iab Matkva ihdzin…” The long – liver Arshba Aslan from the mountainous village Utiyatvra (Tkvarchal) enumerated the names of 15 his ancestors.
The names reflected the ancient Abkhaz anthroponymy, its original vocabulary and structure are still kept in the following enumerations.
Thus, the Abkhaz personal names and nick-names reflect diverse (varied) history, of the nation, its culture.
To study the processes, proceeding in the names of the Abkhaz people, helps deeply study the language of people, its history and culture.
However, antroponymical vocabulary of the Abkhaz language is still under research and deserves more attention from the specialists.

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